1. I am indebted to David Galin and Eleanor Rosch for their helpful comments during the development and writing of this manuscript. (Back to Article)

2. Liquidity may not be the best example of emergence; both hydrogen and oxygen exhibit liquidity at very low temperatures. (Back to Article)

3.  For an interesting discussion of this point, see William James' essay, `Does consciousness exist?' (James, 1922). (Back to Article)

4. Robert Forman is an exception. See Forman (1993). (Back to Article)

5. For discussions of this point and its relationship to philosophical problems see Forman (1990b) and Shear (1990). (Back to Article)

6. For a detailed account see Daniel Goleman, `The Buddha on meditation and states of consciousness', in Shapiro and Walsh (1984). (Back to Article)

7. The key activity of modern Western psychotherapy is to enhance the experience of the observing self, discriminating it from the contents of the mind. Indeed, Freud's basic instructions on free association bear a striking resemblance to the instructions for vipassana meditation (Deilanan,1982). (Back to Article)

8. In Buddhism, the meditation experience may be given different interpretations. Walpole Rahula is emphatic in saying that Buddha denied that consciousness exists apart from matter and therefore rejected the idea of a permanent or enduring Self or Atman (Rahula, 1959). In contrast, D. T. Suzuki identifies the Self with absolute subjectivity (Suzuki et al., 1960). However, both Vedantic and Buddhist commentators agree on the illusory nature of the self-as-thing. (Back to Article)

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