1 Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Send reprint requests to Dr. Bookman, 15 Muir Avenue, Mill Valley, California 94941.

All of the stories quoted in this article are copyrighted by Idries Shah and are reproduced by his permission.

Stories from Tales of the Dervishes and The Way of the Sufi © by E. P. Dutton, New York, are reprinted by permission. Stories from The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin, The Magic Monastery, The Pleasantries of the Incredible Mulls Nasrudin, and Thinkers of the East by I. Shah are reprinted by permission of Curtis Brown, Ltd., New York.

2 In fairness to Freud it should be noted that in his later philosophical writings, he did consider that question and when he did his answer was more in keeping with mystical literature than with modern psychology. "I may now add that civilization is the process in the service of Eros, whose purpose is to combine single human individuals, and after that families, then races, peoples and nations, into one great unity, the unity of mankind" (18, p. 122).

3 Idries Shah has written many books on Sufism and his position as spokesman for contemporary Sufism has been accepted by a large number of authorities (22).

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